In 1877 by a national compromise, the last of federal troops were withdrawn from the region. The total population has not increased significantly, but is young. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet (91 m) above sea level. In the 1980s whites divided evenly between the parties. It noted impediments to needed behavioral modification, including the Delta likely being "the most underserved region in the state" with African Americans the major ethnic group; lack of accessibility and availability of medical care; and an estimated 60% of residents living below the poverty level. Large catfish wandering the swamps and rivers of the states were referred to as Mud-cats. Fewer than 1000 were free people of color. People of French Creole ancestry form the largest demographic group in Hancock County on the Gulf Coast.  It took years for the state to rebuild levees damaged in battles. The first school for black students was not established until 1862. Those of the Mississippian culture were the largest and most complex, constructed beginning about 950 AD. google_ad_client = "pub-6198287838137393";
The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis, Biloxi, and Pascagoula. Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet (246 m) above sea level. , For three years in a row, more than 30 percent of Mississippi's residents have been classified as obese. , After decades of disenfranchisement, African Americans in the state gradually began to exercise their right to vote again for the first time since the 19th century, following the passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1964 and 1965, which ended de jure segregation and enforced constitutional voting rights. In the 21st century, 91% of white children and most of the black children in the state attend public schools. English, Scottish and Scots-Irish are generally the most under-reported ancestry groups in both the South Atlantic States and the East South Central States. Gilbert M. Gaul and Dan Morgan (June 19, 2007), "A Slow Demise in the Delta: US Farm Subsidies Favor Big Over Small and White Over Blacks", "The Richest (and Poorest) Places in the U.S", "Unemployment Rates for States, Seasonally Adjusted, December 2018", "Federal Taxes Paid Vs Federal Spending Received State 1981–2005", "Voters pass all 11 bans on gay marriage", "Mississippi's Ban on Gay Marriage Officially Lifted", "LGBT couples can be refused service under new Mississippi law", "Mississippi law opens a new front in the battle over gay rights", "Mississippi passes controversial 'religious freedom' bill", "Judge blocks controversial Mississippi law", "Major religious freedom law set to take effect, unless Supreme Court intervenes", "Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. Source | Reference Links | Additional Resources, Quick Facts Mississippi: Ben's Guide to U.S. Government. , In 2012, Mississippi had the sixth largest gambling revenue of any state, with $2.25 billion. About seven F5 tornadoes have been recorded in the state. Riots (better described as massacres of blacks) took place in Vicksburg, Clinton, Macon, and in their counties, as well-armed whites broke up black meetings and lynched known black leaders, destroying local political organizations.  In addition, Mississippi led the nation for most of the last decade in the growth of mixed marriages among its population. google_color_bg = "FFFFFF";
Blacks and whites in Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially American music traditions: gospel music, country music, jazz, blues and rock and roll. , On August 30, 2007, a report by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country. Presents information about Mississippi's people, geography, history, landmarks, natural resources, government, state capitol, towns and cities, and more. After thousands of years, succeeding cultures of the Woodland and Mississippian culture eras developed rich and complex agricultural societies, in which surplus supported the development of specialized trades. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico, to the southwest by Louisiana, and to the northwest by Arkansas. This article is about the U.S. state. With the Depression coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years.  A federal judge blocked the law in July, however it was challenged and a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the law in October 2017.. The Riverside Hotel is just one of many historical blues sites in Clarksdale. , At 56 percent, the state has one of the lowest workforce participation rates in the country. The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north to cities such as Chicago and Detroit, seeking employment, where they also competed with European immigrants. google_color_text = "000000";
In 1995, the state symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, which had abolished slavery in 1865. , Around the start of the 20th century, two-thirds of the Mississippi farmers who owned land in the Delta were African American.  The convention was the first political organization in the state to include African-American representatives, 17 among the 100 members (32 counties had black majorities at the time). COOL SCHOOLS
Section 265 of the Constitution of the State of Mississippi declares that "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state. The first major European expedition into the territory that became Mississippi was that of the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, who passed through the northeast part of the state in 1540, in his second expedition to the New World. Democrats had regained control of the state legislature in 1875, after a year of expanded violence against blacks and intimidation of whites in what was called the "white line" campaign, based on asserting white supremacy. From 1874 to the elections of 1875, they pressured whites to join the Democrats, and conducted violence against blacks in at least 15 known "riots" in cities around the state to intimidate blacks. The most well-known nickname for Mississippi is "The Magnolia State." Due to the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties. With large areas of agriculture and rural towns, Mississippi frequently ranks low among states in measures of health, education, and development, and high in measures of poverty. During Reconstruction, the first Mississippi constitutional convention in 1868, with delegates both black and white, framed a constitution whose major elements would be maintained for 22 years. Mississippi: A History,
, Blacks and whites attended segregated and separate public schools in Mississippi until the late 1960s, although such segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. Both caused nearly total storm surge destruction of structures in and around Gulfport, Biloxi, and Pascagoula.  During the first half of the 20th century, a total of nearly 400,000 African Americans left the state during the Great Migration, for opportunities in the North, Midwest and West. Stately antebellum mansions are preserved across the state, hosted by women in billowing hoop skirts during the spring and summer months. In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. The Choctaw agreed to sell their traditional homelands in Mississippi and Alabama, for compensation and removal to reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Matthew Snipp, also a demographer, commented on the increase in the 21st century in the number of people identifying as being of more than one race: "In a sense, they're rendering a more accurate portrait of their racial heritage that in the past would have been suppressed. This 50 State Quarter Map is a great way to collect and display all 50 State Quarters. Three of these installations are located in the area affected by Hurricane Katrina.  In 1973 the Presbyterian Church in America attracted numerous conservative congregations. The amendment passed 86% to 14%, the largest margin in any state. From opera star Leontyne Price to the alternative rock band 3 Doors Down, to gulf and western singer Jimmy Buffett, modern rock/jazz/world music guitarist-producer Clifton Hyde, to rappers David Banner, Big K.R.I.T. Both the state nickname and flower are featured on the Mississippi quarter. In 1819 the United States completed the purchase of West Florida and all of East Florida in the Adams–Onís Treaty, and in 1822 both were merged into the Florida Territory. The state and federal governments have been struggling for the best approaches to restore some natural habitats in order to best interact with the original riverine ecology. ECONOMY
By 1900, many white ministers, especially in the towns, subscribed to the Social Gospel movement, which attempted to apply Christian ethics to social and economic needs of the day. The African-American percentage of population has begun to increase due mainly to a younger population than the whites (the total fertility rates of the two races are approximately equal). Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Some among the black delegates were freedmen, but others were educated free blacks who had migrated from the North. After the Civil War, tens of thousands of migrants were attracted to the area by higher wages offered by planters trying to develop land.