what does girl in the cut mean
[24] Communities may refer to FGM as "pharaonic" for infibulation and "sunna" circumcision for everything else. Third-degree laceration (tears), anal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women. [223] Bernard A. Friedman, Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, ruled in 2018 [224][225][226] that the 1996 Act was unconstitutional, arguing that FGM is a "local criminal activity" that should be regulated by states, not by Congress; he made his ruling during a case against members of the Dawoodi Bohra community in Michigan accused of carrying out FGM. [i] According to UNFPA in 2010, 20 percent of women with FGM have been infibulated. "Should Surgeons Perform Irreversible Genital Surgery on Children?". Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps. [121] Because of the smooth appearance of an infibulated vulva, there is also a belief that infibulation increases hygiene. Canada: Section 268, Criminal Code, Justice Laws website, Government of Canada. According to one 2008 estimate, over eight million women in Africa are living with Type III FGM. ", UNICEF 2016: "Evidence suggests that FGM/C exists in some places in South America such as Colombia and elsewhere in the world including in India, Malaysia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, with large variations in terms of the type performed, circumstances surrounding the practice and size of the affected population groups. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in 2002 found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinya, most of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category. [63] Painful periods are common because of the obstruction to the menstrual flow, and blood can stagnate in the vagina and uterus. [100], A country's national prevalence often reflects a high sub-national prevalence among certain ethnicities, rather than a widespread practice. Since the entire skin on the inner walls of the labia majora has to be removed all the way down to the perineum, this becomes a messy business. [citation needed] The Egyptian government banned infibulation in state-run hospitals in 1959, but allowed partial clitoridectomy if parents requested it. If you’re wondering if this is true: It’s not. [216]:2 The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all forms of the practice, including pricking the clitoral skin. It's prohibited, prohibited, prohibited," Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa said on the privately owned al-Mahwar network. [x] Christian missionaries in Africa were among the first to object to FGM,[144] but Christian communities in Africa do practise it. [234], Around 137,000 women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of 2011. Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body. [254] Anthropologist Fadwa El Guindi compared FGM to breast enhancement, in which the maternal function of the breast becomes secondary to men's sexual pleasure. [242] The first charges were brought in 2014 against a physician and another man; the physician had stitched an infibulated woman after opening her for childbirth. Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women. Infibulation was banned there in 1946, but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. ", Samuel Waje Kunhiyop, 2008: "Nowhere in all of Scripture or in any of recorded church history is there even a hint that women were to be circumcised.". Shahira Ahmed, "Babiker Badri Scientific Association for Women's Studies", in Abusharaf 2007, 176–180. [94] If the current rate of decline continues, the number of girls cut will nevertheless continue to rise because of population growth, according to UNICEF in 2014; they estimate that the figure will increase from 3.6 million a year in 2013 to 4.1 million in 2050. To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and removed after two to six weeks. ABC News. [8] Infibulated women may try to make childbirth easier by eating less during pregnancy to reduce the baby's size. [15], In countries where FGM is common, the practice's many variants are reflected in dozens of terms, often alluding to purification. UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million living women in 30 countries—27 African countries, Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan, and Yemen—had undergone the procedure. [99] The percentage is reversed in Somalia, Egypt, Chad and the Central African Republic, where over 80 percent (of those cut) are cut between five and 14. In 2003 the African Union ratified the Maputo Protocol on the rights of women, which supported the elimination of FGM.

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